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Below is a list of our recent publications.

For a complete list of publications, click here.

* – Indicates undergraduate author


  • M. Santos-Cancel and R. J. White, “Collagen Membranes with Ribonuclease Inhibitors for Long-Term Stability of Electrochemical, Aptamer-Based Sensors Employing RNA,” Anal. Chem. ASAP Article. Click here to learn more.


  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, F. C. Macazo, B. Gutierrez*, J. Lottermoser*, J. Liu, and R. J. White, “Reagentless, Structure-Switching, Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors,” Ann. Rev. Anal. Chem.20169, 163-181. Click here to learn more.
  • F. C. Macazo and R. J. White, “Bio-Inspired Protein Channel-Based Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (Bio-SICM) for Simultaneous Conductance and Specific Molecular Imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 2793-2801Click here to learn more. Featured in JACS editorial on Nanoreactors.


  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, E. P. Glaser*, and Ryan J. White, “Heterogenous Electrochemical, Aptamer-Based Sensor Surfaces for Controlled Sensor Response,” Langmuir 201531, 6563–6569. Click here to learn more. 
  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes and R. J. White, “Rationally Designing Aptamer Sequences with Reduced Affinity for Controlled Sensor Performance,” Sensors 2015, 15, 7754-7767. Special Issue: Smart Materials for Switchable Sensors. Click here to learn more.
  • F. C. Macazo, R. L. Karpel, and R. J. White, “Monitoring Cooperative Binding using Electrochemical DNA-Based Sensors,” Langmuir. 2015, 31, 868-875. Click here to learn more.


  • J. Liu, S. Wagan*, M. Dávila Morris, J. Taylor*, and R. J. White, “Achieving Reproducible Performance of Electrochemical, Folding Aptamer-Based Sensors on Microelectrodes: Challenges and Prospects,” Anal. Chem. 201486, 11417-11424Click here to learn more.
  • F. C. Macazo and R. J. White, “Monitoring Charge Flux to Quantify Unusual Ligand-Induced Ion Channel Activity for use in Biological Nanopore-Based Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 201486, 5519-5525. Click here to learn more.
  • J. Liu, M. Dávila Morris, F. C. Macazo, L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, and R. J. White, “The Current and Future Role of Aptamers in Electroanalysis,” Invited Critical ReviewJ. Electrochem. Soc.2014161, H301-H313. Click here to learn more.
  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, S. Wagan*, and R. J. White, “Enhancing the Analytical Performance of Electrochemical RNA Aptamer-Based Sensors for Sensitive Detection of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics,” Anal. Chem. 201486, 1131-1137. Click here to learn more.


  • B. S. Ferguson, D. A. Hoggarth, D. Maliniak, K. Ploense, R. J. White, N. Woodward, K. Hsieh, A. J. Bonham, M. Eisenstein, T. E. Kippin, K. W. Plaxco, and H. T. Soh, “Real-Time, Aptamer-Based Tracking of Circulating Therapeutic Agents in Living Animals,” Sci. Transl. Med., 2013,  5, 213ra165. Click here to learn more.
  • K. C. Huang and R. J. White, “Random Walk on a Leash: A Simple Single Molecule Diffusion Model for Surface-Tethered Redox Molecules with Flexible Linkers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 12808-12817Click here to learn more.
  • L. Schoukroun-Barnes, S. Wagan, J. Liu, J.B. Leach, and R. J. White, “Biocompatible Hydrogel Membranes for the Protection of RNA Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8719, 2013, Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology X, 87190I. Click here to learn more.

Other Papers

  • B. Zhang, J. Galusha, G. Wang, A. J. Bergren, R. M. Jones, R. J. White, E. N. Ervin, C. C. Cauley, P. Shiozawa and H. S. White, “Fabrication of Glass-Sealed Nanodisk Electrodes, Glass Nanopore Electrodes, and Glass Nanopore Membranes,” Anal. Chem. 2007, 79,4778-4787.
  • R. J. White, E. N. Ervin, S. Daniel, T. Yang, P. S. Cremer and H. S. White, “Single Ion Channel Recordings using Glass Nanopore Membrane Supports,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.2007, 129, 11766-11775.
  • R. J. White and H. S. White, “Electrochemistry in Nanometer-Wide Cells,” Langmuir.2008, 24, 2850-2855.
  • R. J. White, N. Phares, A. A. Lubin, Y. Xiao and K. W. Plaxco, “Optimization of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors via Optimization of Probe Packing Density and Surface Chemistry,” Langmuir. 2008, 24, 10513-10518.
  • N. Phares, R. J. White and K. W. Plaxco, “Improving the Stability and Sensing of Electrochemical Biosensors by Employing Trithiol-Anchoring Groups in a Six-carbon Self-assembled Monolayer,” Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 1095–110.
  • D. Kang, X. Zuo, R. Yang, F. Xia, K. W. Plaxco and R. J. White, “Comparing the Properties of Electrochemical-Based DNA Sensors Employing Different Redox Tags,”Anal. Chem., 2009, 81, 9109-9113.
  • R. J. White and K. W. Plaxco, “Exploiting Binding-Induced Changes in Probe Flexibility for the Optimization of Electrochemical Biosensors,” Anal. Chem., 2010, 82, 73–76.
  • R. J. White, A. A. Rowe, and K. W. Plaxco, “Re-engineering Aptamer Constructs for Reagentless, Self-Reporting Electrochemical Sensors,” Analyst, 2010, 135, 589-594.
  • T. Uzawa, R. R. Cheng, R. J. White, D. Makarov, and K. W. Plaxco, “A Mechanistic Study of Electron Transfer from the Distal Termini of Electrode-Bound, Single-Stranded DNAs,”J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16120-16126.